Hey guys, Sol here with more free time...okay not so much of that, but I had this theory for a time now. We've talked about Ultra biology, specium, how their color/appearances work, etc, but now I think it's time we talk about how their powers work. To a lesser extent this also covers other Giant Heroes, and aliens.
So, before we established that Specium is very likely an element that turns into plasma at room temperature. What it is made of, is irrelevant to my point, but we also no Ultra Skin/Armor is made of fibers of Specium. The silver portions are thicker parts while the colored portions are the thinner parts where the color from enyzymes/steroids shows through; blue, red etc.
Now we also figured out each brand of particle energy, emerium, metallium etc, are specium based elements, basically specium plus a certain element. We also established that these different elements are what cause Ultras to develop many if not all of their specific body features. Type/Particle Energy also likely affects body markings/patterns.
Therefore, Ultras can be defined both by Tribe (their color) and Type (their set of body features). The former explains why Jack and Ultraman look so similar and why Seven's Superior looks like Seven. Jack and Ultraman both use plain Specium energy, while Zoffy's M87 Energy doesn't seem to generate any unique features.
Now the particle energy is also very important for today, because, it ties into how Ultra Powers Work.
The Basics of Ultra Powers
Now we have a few Ultra abilities that are stated to be basic, i.e. no Ultra needs to train to use them. These are Size Change, Super Strength and Ultra Beams. These are their basic abilities, while all other abilities are 'techniques'. What is the difference? You have the ability to punch, but how you do it is the technique. i.e. size change, strength and beams, are natural biological abilities. they don't need to be taught. Every other ability falls under Light Metamorphic abilities. That is to say, Ultra use Light Energy for an effect. That is to say that Ultra Light energy has properties akin to programmable matter.
In Nexus, it was explained that the particle energy for Ultraman's (Nexus) beam, while it's natural was a destructive ray, that particle composition could be altered to give it another effect. That is basically all Ultras do. They take their energy field, and fiddle about with its properties, like putting a puzzle together, so that it performs a specific effect. Ultra Energy is basically like them generating their own technology/tools from their own biological energy. This is why Dark Baltan kept boasting to Max about his race's superior scientific ability, because Max's powers were limited to his knowledge of science.
The best example of this is with Cosmos, who has basically everything from cleansing pathogens, and healing, to reconstructing buildings, and turning off robots with his light energy.
In short, Ultra use their internal energy to create a field that they can manipulate and mold to manipulate the world around them like devices. In its pure form, it's a death ray, but it can be used for other means.
Now basically every other giant hero has their own version of this. Mirrorman uses a form of light energy, Fireman has his Magma Energy, Jumborg has his...Emerald Energy I think... Aliens also seem to have a similar ability, with many evil aliens using Minus Energy as their base. These other giant heroes basically do the same thing, specific hand and/or body movements to achieve a specific technique, modifying and manipulating their particle energy, it's shape it's immediate effect on matter (okay maybe that second one is not as prevalent) and intensity.
That's primarily what all the hand movements are for, manipulating that energy, charging particles, affecting the particle composition of the field, whatever you wish to call it, it does that. That is the difference from simple Ultra Beams and Ultra Techniques.
Now Minus Energy has often been treated as the anti-energy to light energy. Thing is, 'Anti' doesn't automatically mean it operates on opposite properties. Granted, I suspect this power is limited to the more powerful invasive races.
One thing to note from R/B is clearly the field can have properties that affect the techniques and/or the technique available to the user. With the R/B brothers the natural 'shape' of their beams is different. Rosso's abilities often appear in the form of spheres or circles, while his brother's are mainly straight lines.
Even with Father and Son, Seven and Zero, powers can change that way. Seven's Emerium Ray is a straight line by his son's beam is often shown as more of a spiral.