Sugiura was born in Okayama, Japan. He has a brother, Takao (太雄), who is two years younger. Sugiura attended Neyagawa 1st Junior High School (Neyagawa Middle School) and Osaka Sangyo University Senior High School, where he graduated from in 1999.
Sugiura made his debut in 1998 with TV Asahi, where he appeared in several dramas. In 2001, he was cast in and starred for Ultraman Cosmos. This was followed by his appearance in the 2003 movie Ultraman Cosmos vs. Ultraman Justice: The Final Battle.
On June 17, 2007, Sugiura married Nozomi Tsuji while she was three months pregnant; the marriage was confirmed to be a shotgun wedding. Sugiura and Tsuji met in April 2006 through mutual friends. The couple have four children: daughter Noa (希空 Noa) (born 2007), son Seia (青空 Seia) (born 2010), son Sora (昊空 Sora) (born 2013), and son Koa (幸空 Koa) (born 2018).
- Ultraman Cosmos - Musashi Haruno
- Ultraman Cosmos 2: The Blue Planet - Musashi Haruno
- Ultraman Cosmos vs. Ultraman Justice: The Final Battle - Musashi Haruno
- Mega Monster Battle: Ultra Galaxy Legends The Movie - Musashi Haruno
- Ultraman Saga - Musashi Haruno
- Ultraman Ginga S The Movie: Showdown! The 10 Ultra Warriors! - Musashi Haruno
- Ultraman Orb THE ORIGIN SAGA - Musashi Haruno
- Ultra Galaxy Fight: The Absolute Conspiracy - Ultraman Cosmos (voice)
- His first name is actually read as "Takayasu", but he opted for "Taiyo", the alternate reading of the Kanji as his stage name.
- Taiyo's favorite Ultra is Ultraman Taro and had once written on a tanzaku paper during Tanabata at his kindergarten that he wanted to become an Ultraman.